The analysis of the work of the employees in the organization is an important step for the identification of possible problems.
The analysis of the work has the following stages:
- Defining general and specific goals. Evaluation of the work to be performed.
- Preparation of a general plan, which is discussed with the top management and with the line managers and specialists, and with representatives of the subordinates. If necessary, the plan is modified.
- Detailed plan with time schedule.
- If necessary, select and train people who will perform the analysis.
- Pilot study.
- Discussion and discussion of the results.
- Final version for work analysis.
- Analysis of the work.
Review the work.
Characteristics of the job analysts (knowledge and skills)
Sufficient knowledge of the organization; the general idea of the types of work; an idea of the work on the analysis of the work itself; good communication skills; be trained (asked) in asking questions (if the analysis requires the use of an interview); analytical skills; writing and editing skills; skills to demonstrate supportive behavior; be tactful and diplomatic; be able to describe the situation objectively; to pay attention to detail.
Methods for job analysis
Methods for job analysis are interviews, observation, questionnaires, temporary inclusion of the specific job, analysis of documents (organizational charts, job descriptions).
Analysis writing process
A / 1) gathering the most important facts (and excluding unclear information); 2) distribution of key facts in clusters of related topics or areas of responsibility; 3) record of the initial sections in the analysis (title, links, etc.); 4) recording the main responsibilities specific to the respective workplace; 5) the main objectives of the work in this position (the description must exactly meet the requirements!).
B / Revision of the first version of the analysis. The description itself should be presented to the person working in this position and to the line manager for evaluation and comment.
C / Last version of the analysis.
Job analysis is a description of the position in the workplace. It is the basis for the requirements that the employee must meet. The responsibility that the employee assumes in the overall work must also be defined. A well-made description is the basis for a purposeful search and finding the right employee. It can also serve as an objective assessment of those appointed to the respective position. Based on the description and evaluation, the incentive system in the respective organization is established.
Example: Description of the “secretary” position (according to the type of tasks and the amount of time):
1) General office work (20% of working hours); 2) Correspondence (45%); 3) Telephone contacts with clients (15%); 4) Organization of business meetings (10%); 5) Representative tasks, reception (10%).
The amount of time sets a kind of the norm for the implementation of the respective tasks. Eg if the secretary wastes a lot of time on correspondence, the reasons are: the manager fails to reduce the correspondence only to the necessary option, or the secretary does not have enough skills to cope; or there are symptoms of demotivation, etc.
Based on the description a profile for the requirements is prepared, which are determined:
- 1. The knowledge that the employee must have.
- 2. Abilities.
- 3. Personal qualities. (Sometimes there are requirements for personal data – eg age, place of residence, marital status).
These requirements are of two main types: mandatory (must be fulfilled or possessed) and desirable (their presence is an advantage of the employee).