The role of professionally significant qualities for the efficiency of professional work is not disputed. But the relationship between ability and success at work is not linear and one factor. Reference: “Psychological analysis of professions”, https://www.mu7club.com/psychological-analysis-of-professions/
A professional attitude is strongly influenced by the attitude towards the respective profession (motivation and personal characteristics). Bures, for example, compares the ability to work with the technical data of the machine, which, however, can not be included without the energy force, whose analog in human activity is motivation. There is a two-way relationship between ability and motivation. On the one hand – high motivation implies a desire to perform a certain activity, which develops the necessary skills and abilities for the activity. On the other hand – a person with developed abilities in a certain activity creates a positive attitude (motivation) to perform the activity. This is how abilities also develop.
Professionally significant qualities
It should also be noted that some of the professionally significant qualities (except for the primary ones) can be compensated by the presence of strong motivation and can be developed later through training and exercises. This requires much more stress and effort (so the person must be well healthy and with a strong type of higher nervous activity).
In the psychology of work, the discovery of professionally significant qualities is closely related to the determination of professional suitability. In order to evaluate a person, the assessment of his / her professional suitability is also used. There are different views on this concept. Some authors equate professional suitability with the skills needed for a profession. Others expand the scope of the concept:
According to Krutecki, “the whole ensemble, a synthesis of personality traits, as a much broader concept than” abilities “, we call fitness for activity”. At the same time, abilities are defined as individual features of mental processes (sensation, perception, memory, thinking) and include more complex individual features, which also contain elements of personality orientation.
Aspects of professional suitability
There are 3 aspects of professional suitability:
The presence of the necessary motivation to choose a profession (expression of a desire to do just that). Motivation is important depending on the stages of practicing the profession (choosing a profession, training, daily activities). Reference: “Lean training and integration in organizations”, https://stc-montreal.org/lean-training-and-integration-in-organizations/
Existence of psychophysiological prerequisites for the professional knowledge, skills, and habits, which are related to the training and routine performance of professional activity.
Psychophysiological prerequisites through which knowledge and skills are applied in specific (extreme) professional situations.
Category of professional suitability
According to Platonov, the category of professional suitability, in addition to professionally significant qualities and properties, also includes:
– qualification (volume of knowledge, habits, and skills)
– health condition
Platonov does not include the attitude towards professional suitability, but in his examples, it is present at all levels.
Coefficients of professional progress
Different properties and qualities have different coefficients of professional progress, ie. of development through training. This coefficient was discovered by Millerian and is obtained through repeated research of certain important, professionally significant qualities during the training and coaching of the respective quality. Different people have different levels of learning and development. You need to know the personal coefficient and the coefficient of the quality itself. Different abilities improve with different intensities. Training in sensorimotor actions and operations (motor abilities) is faster than in intellectual ones.
Implementation of a profession
According to Daniel and Bikola, for the implementation of a profession there are:
General fitness for work – the physical and mental fitness of the person to work in general (basic characteristics necessary for the performance of almost all types of work). It is believed that many professions require quite similar human characteristics in order to achieve high achievements. These are some common personal characteristics such as responsibility, independence, discipline, determination, perseverance.
Specific (partial) suitability for work – this is an exact match between the profile of the profession and the profile of the individual, but it can be very difficult. According to the authors, the specific professional suitability should include: the physical and health condition of the person; professional qualification; age, citizenship, criminal record (especially for some professions); the endurance of nervous tension; ability to make decisions; responding to innovation; purposefulness and motivation for this type of work; possibilities for adaptation in different conditions; personal qualities (responsibility, self-development, perseverance).
The performance of the job activity
The performance of the same (similar) job activity requires a similar personal profile. In this regard, Cretch proposes a classification (3 types of people) according to the characteristics of individuals, through which the relationship between abilities and profession can be made:
People who do not have special abilities and the level of their general abilities is low. They can only perform ancillary activities. Only negative selection (for contraindications) is enough for them.
People with highly developed general abilities, but no special abilities. They can perform most of the professional activities without those that require special talent.
People with moderately developed general abilities, but also with special abilities. It is very important to know their special abilities in order to ensure their success in work. Especially for this category of people, the professional selection is needed.